Land area: 135,236 sq mi (350,261 sq km); total area: 137,846 sq mi (357,021 sq km)
Population (2012 est.): 81,305,856 (growth rate: –0.2%); birth rate: 8.33/1000; infant mortality rate: 3.51/1000; life expectancy: 80.19
Capital and largest city (2009 est.): Berlin (capital since Oct. 3, 1990), 3.438
Other large cities: Hamburg, 1.786 million; Munich, 1.349; Cologne, 1.001 million
Monetary unit: Euro (formerly Deutsche mark)
Current government officials Language
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, Italian 0.7%, Greek 0.4%, Polish 0.4%, other 4.6%
Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Islam 4%, Unaffiliated or other 28%
Unity Day, October 3
Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)
GDP/PPP (2011 est.)$3.085 trillion; per capita $37,900. Real growth rate: 2.7%. Inflation: 2.2%. Unemployment: 6%. Arable land: 34%. Agriculture: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry. Labor force: 43.62 million; industry 24.6%, agriculture 1.6%, services 73.8% (2011). Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles. Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land. Exports: $1.408 trillion (2011 est.): machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles. Imports: $1.198 trillion (2011 est.): machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals. Major trading partners: France, U.S., UK, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Spain, China, Switzerland (2009).
Telephones Main lines in use: 45.6 million (2009); mobile cellular: 105 million (2009). Broadcast media: a mixture of publicly-operated and privately-owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately-owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008) Internet hosts: 20.41 million (2010). Internet users: 65.125 million (2009).
Railways total: 41,981 km (2012).Highways: total: 644,480 km (2012). Waterways: 7,467 km (2006); note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2004). Ports and harbors: Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Duisburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Mainz, Rostock, Wilhemshaven. Airports: 541 (2012).