Land area: 1,147,949 sq mi (2,973,190 sq km); total area: 1,269,338 sq mi (3,287,590 sq km)
Population (2011 est.): 1,205,073,612 (growth rate: 1.312%); birth rate: 20.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 46.07/1000; life expectancy: 67.14
Capital (2009 est.): New Delhi, 21.72 million Largest cities: Mumbai 19.695 million; Kolkata 15.294 million; Chennai 7.416 million; Bangalore 7.079 million (2009) Monetary unit: Rupee National name: Bharat Government: Federal republic.
Principal languages: Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Ethnicity/race: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001)National Holiday: Republic Day, January 26, Independence Day , August 15. Literacy rate: 61% (2005 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $4.515 trillion; per capita $3,700. Real growth rate: 7.2%. Inflation: 6.8%. Unemployment: 9.8%. Arable land: 48.83%. Agriculture: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish. Labor force: 487.6 million; agriculture 19%, services 54.7%, industry 26.3% (2010). Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals. Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromites, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land. Exports: $298.2 billion (2011 est.): petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel. Imports: $451 billion (2011 est.): crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals. Major trading partners: U.S., UAE, China, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Singapore (2011)
Telephones: main lines in use: 35.09 million (2010); mobile cellular: 752 million (2010). Broadcast media: Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; large number of privately-owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately-owned FM stations are permitted but limited to broadcasting entertainment and educational content (2007). Internet hosts: 6.738 million (2010). Internet users: 61.338 million (2009).
Railways: total: 63,974 km (18,927 km electrified) (2010). Roadways: total: 3,320,410 km (2009). Waterways: 14,500 km; note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels (2012). Ports and harbors: Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam. Airports: 352 (2012).